Mumbai, India

The Portuguese acquired this renowned city from Bahadur Shah in the 15th century and called it Bom Baim, meaning “good bay.” India’s largest city and principal seaport, Bombay is “Mumbai” in Marathi.

Sprawling between the Western Ghats and the Indian Ocean, Mumbai is a major commercial center. Bollywood film, cotton and other industries bring in the country’s highest per capita income.